Industrial Light and Magic

Industrial Light and Magic have had many achievements and received many awards over the years for their outstanding visual effects in many of the films we all know and love.

Their greatest achievements and milestones include:

The resurrection of VistaVision (a higher resolution, widescreen variant of the 35mm motion picture film format, created by engineers at Paramount Pictures in 1954); first use of a motion control camera in Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope in 1975.

In 1982 ILM created the first completely computer-generated sequence – the Genesis sequence in Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan.

In 1985 ILM created “the stained glass man” in Young Sherlock Holmes, the first completely computer-generated character.

In 1988 the first morphing sequence was created for the film Willow.

In 1989 the first computer-generated 3D character – the pseudopod in The Abyss – was created.

In 1991 the T-1000 in Terminator 2: Judgment Day was created – it was the first partially computer-generated main character.

In 1992 the texture of human skin was computer-generated in the film Death Becomes Her, for the first time.

In 1993 ILM used digital technology for the first time to create a complete and detailed living creature – the dinosaurs in Jurassic Park.

In 1995 the first fully synthetic speaking computer-generated character, with a distinct personality and emotion, to take a leading role in the film Casper; the first computer-generated photo-realistic hair and fur (used for the digital lion and monkeys) in Jumanji. In the same year, ILM were the first to put visual effects for live-action sequence into a 2D cartoon in Balto.

In 1996, ILM created the first completely computer-generated main character – Draco in Dragonheart.

In 1999, Imhotep in The Mummy was created – it was the first computer-generated character to have a full human anatomy.

In 2003, ILM used the most extensive projects and animation techniques yet to create a large, human-like, green monster in Hulk.

In 2006, ILM used the iMocap system in the creation of Davy Jones and the ship’s crew in the film Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man’s Chest.

In 2011 the film Rango was created – it was the first film animated completely by ILM.

ILM were nominated for Best Visual Effects for many years in the Academy Awards, the British Academy Awards and the Emmy Awards.

2009 – Nominations for Star Trek and Harry Potter and the Half Blood Prince

2008 – Nominations for Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull and Iron Man.

2007 – Nominations for Transformers and Pirates of the Caribbean: At World’s End.

2006 – Received awards for Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man’s Chest.

2005 – Nominations for the Chronicles of Narnia and War of the Worlds.

2004 – Nominations for Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban.

2003 – Nominations for Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World and Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl.

2002 – Nominations for Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Gangs of New York, Minority Report, and Star Wars: Episode II “Attack of the Clones”.

2001 – Nominations for A.I. Artificial Intelligence.

2000 – Nomination and award for The Perfect Storm.

1999 – Nominations for Sleepy Hollow, Star Wars: Episode I “The Phantom Menace” and The Mummy.

1998 – Nomination for Mighty Joe Young and award for Saving Private Ryan.

1997 – Award for Men In Black and nomination for The Lost World: Jurassic Park

1996 – Nominations and award for Dragonheart and Twister.

1994 – Nominations and awards for Forrest Gump and The Mask.

1993 – Received awards for Jurassic.

1992 – Received awards for Death Becomes Her.

1991 – Nominations for Hook and Backdraft; awards for Terminator II: Judgment Day.

1989 – Awards and nomination for Back To The Future Part II and The Abyss.

1988 – Awards and nomination for Who Framed Roger Rabbit and Willow.

1987 – Received awards for Innerspace and The Witches of Eastwick

1985 – Nominations and awards for Young Sherlock Holmes, Ewoks: The Battle for Endor, Back to the Future and Cocoon.

1984 – Received awards for The Ewok Adventure and Indiana Jones & The Temple of Doom.

1983 – Received awards for Return of the Jedi.

1982 – Nomination and awards for ET and Poltergeist.

1981 – Nomination for Dragonslayer.

1980 – Award for Emperor Strikes Back

1977 – Award for Star Wars.

ILM was created by George Lucas to provide visual effects for his first Stars wars movie Episode IV – A new hope (1977). In the production the Dykstraflex motion control camera system was created and used. This system facilitated the compositing of numerous elements, this system revolutionized the visual effect field. Since then ILM has created visual effects for close to 300 films, including the entire Star Wars saga, The Abyss, Indiana Jones series, Harry Potter series, Jurassic Park series, Back to the Future trilogy, a few of the Star Trek films, Ghostbusters II, Who Framed Roger Rabbit, Pirates of the Caribbean series, the entire Terminator sequels, Transformers films, the Men in Black series, and also provided some work for Avatar. ILM also collaborates with Steven Spielberg on most films that he directs and/or produces.

ILM were also the first visual effects company to create entire computer generated characters. The films included Young Sherlock Holmes, The Abyss, Terminator 2: Judgment Day and Jurassic Park. They also created life like distortions of the human body in Death Becomes Her and The Mask which made way to digital breakthroughs in the films The Perfect Storm, Twister, Star Wars: Episode I -The Phantom Menace and on to modern blockbusters like Avatar and Star Trek, Transformers, Pirates of the Caribbean and Iron Man films.

Additionally, the ILM has created less noticeable effects in productions such as Schindler's List, Forrest Gump, Snow Falling on Cedars, Magnolia, and some Woody Allen films. This includes widening streets, digitally adding more extras to a shot, and inserting the film's actors into famous photos.

With its many technical and creative innovations, ILM has helped develop the evolution of visual effects and set the standard.

Bauhaus School, Art Nouveau and Zoo Advertising

Wednesday, May 18, 2011

Bauhaus School
Walter Gropius was the man who founded the Bauhaus School in 1919 and was director until he stood down in 1928, when Hannes Meyer became director. He was fired in 1930, and replaced by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, who was director until the schools close in 1933.
Gropius was born in 1883 in Berlin. He studied architecture from 1903 until 1907. After this he worked in Peter Behrens' practice until 1910 when he opened his own. Around this time he became a member of the Deutscher Werkbund, a group whose aim was to promote creativity in design. He founded the Bauhaus School in 1919 and was director until 1927. He stayed in Europe and England until moving to America in 1937 to take up a teaching position at Harvard. In 1938 he opened a joint practice with Marcel Breuer. He died in Boston in 1969.
Meyer was born in 1889 in Switzerland. he took over as director of the Bauhaus school in 1928, and it was under his Communist beliefs and influence that many of the students followed, thus bringing unwanted political attention to the school. He was fired as director in 1930 by the Mayor of Dessau. After his sacking, he and several students formed a group whose projects included architectual structures and urban planning projects. He travelled a lot after this group was also forced to quit, but returned to Switzerland where he died in 1954.
Mies was born in 1886 in Germany. Before opening his own practice in 1912 he worked for several years at the practice of Peter Behrens, and studied his craft. He designed many buildings, including skyscrapers. He became the director of the Bauhaus School in 1930 and stayed on until the school was forced to close in 1933 by the new German Nazi Government. In 1937 he moved to Chicago where he became the head of Architecture at the Illinois Institute of Technology. He also later designed this Institutes new campus, as well as many structures in his style of open space, steel and glass. He died in Chicago in 1969.

Bauhaus was a Utopian driven school in Germany that believe in changing the world through design. Bauhaus means "build House". Bauhaus movement started in 1919-1933, it's main aim was to bring arts and crafts together to make a better place for people to live in. Walter Gropius the founder of the Bauhaus school was known to say " Form follows function and together let us

desire, conceive, and create the new structure of the future, which will embrace architecture and sculpture and painting in one unity” Walter Gropius
The main influences to this movement was in architecture, future, and in typography. The style is referred to being spare, functional, and geometric.
Which appealed to the Western Europe.
The Impact of Bauhaus
In the decades following its end, the Bauhaus had a major impact on the trends of art and architecture in Western Europe, The USA, Canada and Israel. The style became one of the most influential currents in Modernist architecture and modern design. The Bauhaus had a profound influence upon subsequent developments in art, architecture, graphic design, interior design, industrial design and typography.

One of the main objectives of the Bauhaus was to unify art, craft and technology, and the exploration of fundamentals such as the material properties of wood and metal or how colours and forms operated within an image instead of recreating or imitating great artworks fo the past. Today’s “Basic Design” course comes from Bauhaus’ Vorkurs (“initial” or “preliminary course”), which is offered in architectural and design schools all over the world.
One of the most important contributions of the Bauhaus is modern furniture design. Many chair designs we see today are created in the Bauhaus style - sleek and geometric. Buildings and other architectural structures we see are also influenced by the Bauhaus style. The city of Chicago is probably one of the best examples of this.

Zoo Advertising
Zoo Advertising has been around for over 10 years, working out of their Canberra based studios.
The team of designers have quite a number of years experience working in the Graphics Industry.
Although there isn't a lot of information about the formation of the studio their web site is beautifully produced, with a finish that keeps you going back and looking for more within it.
Their portfolio of work is very impressive and the quality of the work is very clean and attractive. They offer skills of design, branding, web design and corporate image. Their logos and poster work are exceptional and very creative. There work also includes interior design work as well as work that is seen outdoors (such as banners and posters), one of the designers has also created his own clothing brand (Spader) where he incorporates many of his designs.
Much of the work the agency does stems from local and federal government agencies although it is not limited to this area.
The design team has a vision of where they want to be in the now and in the future and they do this by keeping abreast with current trends and having a dynamic team of creative minds who want the best for their clients.
My opinion
Zoo Advertising has a very classy, clean style, their work is beautiful in its simplicity when required but can also be out their and innovative. I love their logo work because of its use of simple typography rather than clutter with images and they seem to be really in tune with the clients needs.

psd tutorials.

Monday, May 16, 2011

Universe Typography. Truth Typography.

Wednesday, May 11, 2011

Joshua Davis
Joshua Davis is a New York based artist, designer, and technologist. He produces both public and private work for companies, collectors, and institutions. Since 1995, Davis has been using technology and computers as a medium to create infinitely interesting projects, and he also utilized Chaos Theory () to establish a new, unique perspective on visual communication and creative expression which had been an otherwise unexplored area in graphic design.
Davis was strongly influenced by abstract expressionist Jackson Pollock, and incorporated Pollock's random technique of splattering paint and other items across large canvases into his coding. He was also influenced by his love of classic video games, such as Space Invaders.
In 1995 at the Pratt Institute David began to delve into HTML, working under Thomas Noller, and afterwards began to experiment with Macromedia Flash and ActionScript programming. Davis' work became influential in graphic and web design in the Y2K era.
In January 2001, Davis posted an autobiography in which revealed subjects on his personal life in the NYC art/club scene in the early 90's, his drug addiction and how he overcame it to pursue his goal of being a full time artist. He aspired to be a writer and illustrator of children's books.
From 1998-2001, Davis worked with the web production company Kioken. When the company folded, he became an independent web designer and artist.
In 2002 Joshua Davis teamed up with developer Brandon Hall to form a media development studio, The Department of Notations Studios. It was disbanded in 2006, but despite this Davis and Hall cobtinue to collaborate on various projects.
In 2003, Adam Jones from Tool asked him to take over their website. He designed an intro page, but the site has since been changed.
As of 2007, Davis resides in NY with his wife and daughter. He is a professor at the NY School of Arts, runs his own design studio, and continues to lecture and lead design workshops.
Annabel's opinion of his work:
Davis' work is very recognisable, as you see examples of his particular style on almost everything such as clothing and on the cover of notebooks/diaries/etc. It's easy to tell that he puts a lot of thought and effort into his art by his use of colour and pattern to create beautiful detail. I like that his work ranges from abstract to very abstract, and it's easy to keep looking at his art because whilst there are a lot of patterns and bright colours it's not too much.
Joshua Davis has a very distinct abstract vector based style using geometric shapes along with the more commonly seen vector swirls and swishes. Joshua's artwork has that strong vector look using blends of colours to achieve extra dimensions to his work.
His design work appears on home decorating items such as bed linen, cushions, dinnerware and personal items such as backpacks and notebooks.
  • Joshua describes his work as being "dynamic abstraction".
  • Joshua sometimes calls his work a "beautiful accident waiting to happen".
His style may not appeal to everyone as it is a very abstract style, with colours not necessarily harmonious with one another.
Michelle's opinion of his work
I personally don't mind some of his work, but I think that you would have to use it and view sparingly as it is very strong. On the other hand his work has obviously been emulated often so there is a flood of similar style art on offer around the world.
I enjoy the blends of colours and the combinations of colours that he uses. He really shows what you can do with colour when you don't restrict yourself to any rules.

Ansel Adams
Born on the 20th February 1902, in San Francisco and died 82 years later on 22nd April 1984 in Monterey, California. Adams first interest was in music and he was a pianist before he became a photographer and an environmentalist.
Adams came from a conservative family both socially and emotionally causing him to be naturally shy, he had problems fitting in school mostly caused by the events of the earthquake in 1906 which left him with a broken nose which was a distinct feature of his entire life.
He became interested in photography when he first visited Yosemite National Park in 1916. Music influenced Adams photography greatly as it taught him to have substance, discipline, and structure. He loved nature and spent a lot of time exploring his surroundings.
In 1928 he married Virginia Best in Yosemite and had two children, during this time he lived in Yosemite and took many pictures of Yosemite National Park. He was encouraged immensely to pursue photography by Paul Strand, Adams work were based on landscapes and Nature.
Adams invented a method called the zone, which helped him divide the light of a scene into different zones. By doing this it allowed him to separate black and white and blend grey to give him his desired effect on his pictures.
Ansel Adams is best known for his black and white photographs of the American west. He is also known for developing the zone system. The zone system was a way of determining the proper exposure and adjusting the contrast of a final print. It is a way concluding the development and control for black and white in a photograph using 9 different variations of shade varying from black to white. These are called zones.
Ansel had a different way of looking at the process of taking photographs. One of his mottos was “as far as photographs are concerned beauty comes first”. He also advocated the idea of visualisation, which is seeing a photo in the minds eye before taking the photo in achieving all together unity and aethetics. Ansel has also received many awards including a doctor of arts from Harvard and Yale. He has recently been inducted into the California Hall of Fame. Some of his photographs such as the Yosemite national park images are one of the most recognisable pictures in the world today.
Animal Logic
Animal Logic was established in 1991, it quickly earned a reputation as on the worlds leading design, visual effects and animation companies. Animal logic continues to produce award-winning work for a diverse, international clientele, with studios in Sydney Australia and an office in Los Angeles California.
Animal logic has worked successfully with leading advertising agencies and television commercial directors which enabled Animal logic to expand into feature film work including, Babe, The Matrix, 300 and culminating in the release of Australia’s first digital animated feature Happy Feet.
Animal logic has done a lot of ads, some you might recognise as the Optus ad, the target colours ad, Honda jazz ad, Mars bar ad, Pure blonde ads, Carlton draught and Toohey’s ads. Animal logic is famous for their digital animation; I guess it’s why they are as famous and popular as they are. If I were to choose a company to do digital animation or commercials I would defiantly recommend animal logic.
Not only does the company Animal Logic have a vast client base throughout the world they also have a long history of developing and supporting software products. They have created and built on software products such as Mayaman, Maxman, Softman, PRman. By developing these programs and software animal logic has made 3D programs and software available to not only big businesses but one-man businesses from home.
Animal Logic has worked on many high end visual effects for commercials and television programs. They have worked and designed projects for clients such as Cartoon Network and Spicks and Specks they have worked on the award winning film Happy Feet. In November 2009 Animal Logic ranked 447 in the Top500 super computer sites.
Animal Logic's online presence is wide and varied. Information found on Wikipedia is the same as what is provided on their own website. Contact information is provided on the Fox Studios Australia website; filmography is listed on the Internet Movie Database (IMDB); and they have accounts for people to follow on Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn.
Their own website is quite impressive. It is a Flash based site with stills from movies and commercials they have made looping on the background; is quite interactive (particularly in the section where you can 'meet' some of the people who work there) and has a lot of images, film clips and information about the movies, commercials, designs, jobs and products (software) they develop.
Their style, based on their portfolio, is impressive, varied, interesting and memorable. Their work is different and 'outside the box' which is why is it is memorable, although most people would never have heard of them.
Animal Logic has several studios in Sydney, Los Angeles and Santa Monica.
Their work targets several different audiences from children with films such as happy feet, babe and legend of the guardians to adults with films such as 300, 28 weeks later and world trade center. It is hard to develop a single opinion on them as if there is something you don't like made by them then there will most certainly be something else that you would like. This is a result of several unique advertisements and filming effects that adhere to everyone's likes and interests.

GD Portfolio Websites.

Tuesday, May 10, 2011
What I really like about this website is the simplicity of it. It's easy to navigate and to look at. The black and white colour scheme is both good and bad. The colours give the portfolio a clean and stylish feel, and it doesn't take away from the artist's work, though it does feel a little bit repetitive as well. I like the click and drop down menus at the top, because I find there's nothing more annoying than going to a website and having menus fly out and drop down when you're trying to navigate your way around the website or trying to read something. I also like that if you click once on the titles, the list stays there so you don't have to try and move your mouse repeatedly to get to the section you want. I like when you click on a body of work, it has the title and a small paragraph on the body of work so you can read it once and then continue looking without having to stop and read anything else.
Again, this website is simple and easy to navigate. The black, grey and pink/brown colour scheme is very appealing and also doesn't take away from the artist's bodies of work. The one thing I don't like about it is the font used.
I really this Graphic Design agency's website mainly because it has a really nice background and all the information and portfolio work is in a box in the centre of the page, which I think is a really cool design. Like, I like the click drop down menu on the left hand side. I also really like that when you click on a certain body of work, instead of having to scroll through a bunch of images, they're altogether - e.g., corporate ID with stationary is displayed with the logo, letterhead and business card on the one slide.
This is a website we were shown last year – it’s brilliant. The layout itself is simple and clean, leaving plenty of room to display the amazing pieces of work. It’s easy to navigate and easy to look at.
I think this website is groovy. I really like the grid, and how some of the squares pop out; the layout is fun, and the whole website has a friendly feel about it.
There really are no words to describe how bad this website is.

Email Concerning Copy & Images for Flyer

Friday, May 6, 2011

Email to Tanya Greentree:


Mrs. Greentree,

Thank you for supplying me with the relevant information for the flyer for City Park Motel. I’ve encountered a few issues with the images you’ve included with the body copy, and I’m hoping you’ll be able to help me out.

The images have too lower resolution for print, which means that when the flyers get printed the images will look blurry and unattractive, and will potentially ruin the look of the flyer. I’d really like to make this flyer look as good and professional as possible so it reflects well on the City Park Motel. If you have the original or larger copies of these images on file, please attach them individually in an email to this address. Thank you for your cooperation.


Annabel Matthews.

Issues and Solutions


-There are too many images for a DL flyer.
-The images are too lower resolution for print
-Possibly too much information for a DL flyer

-Email the client and tell them (in a professional manner) that there are too many images and perhaps they could possibly pick their favourite five images or perhaps have one image for each section of information. In this email, you can also ask them for higher resolution images and perhaps for a smaller body copy.

1. What is intellectual property and is it the same as copyright?

Intellectual property and copyright are similar, but not the same: intellectual property is something that results from original and creative thought and copyright is applied automatically to any materials created, though it does not protect ideas or information.

2. How would you register your design for copyright and how much would it cost?

Under Australian law, there is no registration of copyright. Copyright rights come into existence at the same time as someone creates something which is a type of material that copyright protects. There are no fees to pay for copyright protection.

3. I have an idea about a logo design, is it covered by copyright?

No. Copyright does not protect ideas, concepts, styles, techniques or information.

4. What is the name of the federal legislation covering copyright law in Australia?

Copyright Act 1968 (cth).

5. What does Copyright protect?

Textual material such as journal articles, novels and poems; computer programs; compilations such as directories and databases; artistic works such as paintings and drawings; dramatic works such as choreography and mime pieces; musical works (the music itself, separate from the lyrics and recording); cinematograph films; sound recordings; broadcasts; published editions.

6. What is the Copyright notice and its purpose?

The copyright notice is the symbol (the letter ‘c’ within a circle) followed by the name of the copyright owner and year of first publication. It does not need to be on something to ensure that it is protected by copyright in Australia or in most other countries, but it does remind people that the work may be protected. It also lets people know who is claiming copyright.

7. What evidence could you provide to a court to prove you’re the copyright owner of a logo you’ve designed?

You could provide concept sketches that you’ve created, or you can have somebody verify that the logo is yours if they have witnessed your design progress.

8. If an artwork appears in an Art Gallery, does the Gallery own copyright for that item?

No, the gallery does not own copyright. The Copyright Act states that the first owner of copyright is the creator of the work.

9. If I’m employed by a company as their in-house graphic designer, who would generally own the copyright?

The company generally owns the copyright, but you can get written permission to use your work for self-promotion.

10. If I’m working as a freelance Graphic Designer and create a logo for a company, who would generally own the copyright for the logo?

You would because you’re working for yourself.

11. How much of an artistic work can I safely use without infringing on copyright?

If you have taken a small part of an artistic work and then changed or added to it, it could still infringe on copyright and may not be allowed by the copyright owner without permission. Generally though, if it is not an important, essential or distinctive part of the artwork you’re using, you may be allowed to claim it as your own work.

12. If you’ve done everything in your power to identify the copyright owner but they won’t contact you back, is it ok to use the work without permission as long as you use a ‘good faith notice’ stating you were unable to contact them?

Using a ‘good faith notices’ or statement saying that you were unable to contact the copyright owner does not alter your legal liability for infringement.

13. Who is VISCOPY and what might they come in handy for?

VISCOPY is the visual arts copyright collecting society. VISCOPY can provide you with a licence to reproduce works of arts from Australia and overseas. They can also provide you with an artist’s details so you are able to get into contact with them yourself. VISCOPY would come in handy for publishing an artwork in a book or displaying a piece in a gallery or exhibition.

14. What are moral rights?

Moral rights are given to individual creators whether they own copyright or not. Moral rights give the creator rights to;

be attributed as the creator of their work; take action if their work is falsely attributed as being someone else’s work or is altered by someone else but attributed as if it were unaltered; and take action if their work is distorted or treated in a way that is prejudicial to their honour or reputation.

15. How would you go about obtaining copyright clearance for an artwork you want to use that you’ve found on the internet?

Clearing copyright is another name for obtaining a licence which grants you permission to use copyright material. This process is subject to conditions, such as a payment of a fee. The moral rights of the artist also need to be taken into account. You may need to obtain a written consent from the artist, separate from any arrangement with the copyright owner, if you want to do something with the artwork that will infringe the artist’s moral rights.

16. What is a Trademark and how do you register one?

A trademark can be a name or logo (and in some cases a colour, sound or smell) used as an identifier for a business or individual. To register a trademark you need to visit IP Australia (

17. What does a Patent protect?

A Patent protects inventions, including processes, methods and techniques.

18. Define Defamation.

Defamation is the false or unjustified injury of a person’s good reputation. The law of defamation protects people’s reputations, and concerns the way you speak about or refer to people and how you use their images.

Soap Creative

Soap describe themselves as specializing in delivery innovative, hight creative ad strategy-focused campaigns across websites, games, content, social media, widgets, electronic direct mail, standard and rich media, viral and metrics and reporting.

Soap creative have clients that include Unilever brands LYNX, Streets, Bushells, Impulse as well as 3 Mobile, FOXTEL, 20th Century Fox, Activision and Marvel.

You could say that soap has a work hard play hard culture, their claim to fame is that they host weekly BBQs, take their entire team to remote locations for Skiing lessons. Each ember has a soap-o-hero alter ego which they get to choose and illustrate them and place on their business card. They say this is great for client meetings and pitches as it sets them apart from other agencies, it also creates a 'tribe" and creates unity among the staff. The culture of the soap-o-hero is extended through the office where they have different meeting rooms " the hall of justice", emergency meeting room " the scape pod" and mystery room "x".

Big gamers and at the moment have three active gaming clients activision, unilever and naughty dog.

This agency is absolutely amazing!

Soap Creative has had many clients over their nine years of business, including a vast collection of widely recognised companies such as 20th Century Fox, ABC New Media, Activision, Ben & Jerry’s, Dick Smith, Foxtel, KFC, Lynx and Marvel.

Soap Creative offer services in screen-based media such as websites, mobile phone applications, tools and games (including online and CD-Rom). This agency has also created tshirt prints for Bubble-O Bill, and a card game called the Meeting Game.

Their work is very clean and professional its very groovy and all the content that I have viewed has all been very awesome, I never felt negative when interacting or viewing the content it was very attention catching and fun.

The lynx content was a bit sexist however it is targeted towards men and sex does sell as there statistics show, I wasn’t offended it just didn’t hold my attention as the rest did.

They have many notorious clients and deal with a broad medium from games to videos and websites that are all targeted towards a variety of audiences.

William Caslon


In 1716 he built his own type foundary in London, which produced some 16 years later his most famous typeface Caslon. He first started out in his business as an engraver of gunlocks and barrels and as a bookbinders tool cutter. He later established contact and encouragement through the printers William Bowyer and John Watts that lead to cutting type punches for various presses London.

In 1720 he designed an “English Arabic” typeface used in the New Testament. Soon after in 1722 he released his first typefaces, which were based on seventeenth century Dutch old style designs and were used extensively in England because of their practicality. 1726 was when the typeface Caslon was first used and soon after it’s release he received loans and sufficient trade, which enabled him to complete the setup of his foundary. Up until the 1780’s there were few books that weren’t printed in one of his typefaces.

In 1735 his typefaces spread all over Europe and American colonies that lead to the font being used to print the American Declaration of Independence. His son William Caslon II soon joined the company and in 1745 became partner and took over the family business after his death.


William Caslon designed a number of serif typefaces in his lifetime, some of which are still used today. The first three fonts by William Caslon were Arabic, Hebrew and Koptic. He also designed typefaces such as Caslon 540, Caslon Bold, Caslon Old Face, Big Caslon, Caslon Open Face, Williams Caslon Text and most likely in any other that has the name ‘Caslon’ on it.

The United States Declaration of Independence was set in Caslon type, which would have to be one of William Caslon’s greatest accomplishments.

The name ‘Caslon’ comes from the 18th Century typeface that was designed by William Caslon. This serif typeface was printed in the earliest English language texts and is also know to the typeface used for the New Yorker Magazine.

William Caslon’s typefaces immediately became popular and were used for many important printed works. Caslon’s type became so popular that the expression about the typeface choice, ‘when in doubt, use Caslon,’ came about.After William Caslon’s death in 1766, his typefaces fell out of favour but were revived in the 1840s, some of which are widely used today.


William Caslon was born in 1692 in cradley, Worcestershire, England. In 1706 at the age of 13 he began a seven-year apprenticeship as an engraver with a London harness marker. In 1716 he became a self-employed engraver of gunlocks and barrels, and as a bookbinders tool cutter. In 1721 the society for promoting Christian knowledge commissioned Caslon to cast Arabic alphabets where his font became an instant success. In around 1720 William Caslon founded a typeface foundry called the Caslon Foundry. That foundry became the leading English typeface foundry of the 18th and early 19th centuries. He died in 1766. Caslon is cited as the first original typeface of English origin.

Caslon’s font is characterized by its short ascenders and decenders, bracketed serifs, moderately high contrast, robust texture and moderate modulation of stroke. The Caslon’s typeface has become one of the most famous typefaces in the world today. The first copy of the declaration of independence was printed in Caslon. There are many typefaces that have been derived from Caslon’s font in existence. Caslon’s type is now considered a good, readable typeface for text.

Giambattista Bodoni

Giabattista was known as an engraver, type designer, typographer, printer and publisher. By 1780s Giabattista designed a typeface called BODONI and it has been regarded as to be one of the first modern typefaces. He moved on to making another 2 main innovations in type design: he gave a vertical alignment to the sloped swellings in the bowls of the letters that derive from the down strokes in handwriting; he made all the horizontal serifs on the upper and lower parts of the letters very thin and uniform; and he increased the contrast between stems and serifs (Quoted-Art Encyclopedia- Grove Art, Oxford University Press). According to the Columbia Electronic encyclopedia Giabattista was regarded as one of the leaders in originating pseudoclassical typefaces.

At the age of 18, Giabattista moved to Rome and was employed as a typesetter at the Vatican's Propaganda Fide printing works; Giabattista had worked for the Vatican for almost 10 years. After battling Malaria, Bodoni was hired by the Duke Ferdinand of Bourbon - Parma to organise a printing house. This is where Bodoni got to work on a range of specimen books, which were very well received. Eventually Bodoni opened his own printing house called Officina Bodoni.

From 1768 Bodoni ran a printing house called Stamperia Reale, in Parma, Italy. After a while doing this he opened his own printing house called Officina Bodoni.

Bodoni's Internet presence is minimal. There is not a lot of extensive information about his life: some can be found on, and other typography websites. His fonts can be downloaded from sites such as,, and

Whilst working in the Vatican's Propaganda Fide printing house in Rome, Bodoni impressed his superiors with a willingness to learn, he had a mastery of ancient languages and types.

Bodoni achieved an unprecedented level of technical refinement, allowing him to faithfully reproduce letterforms with very thin "hairlines".

Bodoni designed and personally engraved 298 typefaces.

Bodoni did away with old style letters and introduced a new clear simple type - the modern typeface. In his influential Manuale Tipografico of 1818, he laid down the four principles of type design, which were: regularity of chracters, cleanness, good taste and charm.

His master piece was Homer's Iliad.

Bodoni was the most successful early proponent of what is referred to as the "modern" typeface, distinguished by a strong contrast between thin and thick strokes.

His coldly elegant books where made to be admired for the typeface and layout and not to be studied or read. (Proof reading was not his strong point).

  • In his manuale tipografico (two volume works) contains about 142 roman alphabets, numerous script and exotic typefaces and a striking collection of flowers and ornaments.
  • Bodoni emphasized the use of good paper and strong ink.

Although Bodoni is regarded as a "modern typeface", I feel that Bodoni would be more suited to that of a display font and used sparingly. Although in saying this a combination of his typeface and ornaments would create a very clean piece of artwork.

I admire the use of thin and thick strokes throughout his type as I feel that this gives the type a unique definition.

Formal yet fun with thick and thin strokes.

Bodoni has created a classic type face with
letters very thin and uniform; and he increased the contrast between stems and serifs.

New Typeface

Monday, May 2, 2011

This is a preview of a typeface I started designing during the holidays and I've finished the upper and lower case plus numbers 0-9. All I need to work on now are the symbols :)

I've named this typeface 'Mascarpone' - I really have no clue as to why I named it after a cheese. I think it was just the shapes of the characters and after creating each one it just came to me.

Breaking the Rules of Type

Sunday, May 1, 2011

The first David Carson inspired design.
I didn't think that this looked grungy or dirty enough so I played around with some selective colouring and added some more grungy brushes and texture over the type.

Neville Brody

Neville Brody was born on the 23rd of April, 1957 in London, England. He studied Graphic Design from 1977 to 1980 at London College of Printing, and at the Hornsey School of Art. His influences include 20th Century Avant-Garde design, and Russian Constructivists El Lissitzky and Alexander Rodchenko.

Neville Brody's online presence is very vast. Information about him and examples of his work are on many websites such as (which he founded), and even on the Mac section of the Apple website. There are also interviews avaliable to watch online on His vast collection of fonts, including Insignia and Blur, appear on many websites that are available for download or purchase, such as,,,, and

Neville Brody's work has been deemed uncommerical as his work often puts heavy heavy emphasis on safe and tested economic strategies as opposed to experimentation. During the punk rock fase in london he was almost thrown out of college for putting the Queen's head sideways on a postage stamp design, which beganhis design career of questioning the rules of society and design.

Brody largely made his nam through his revolutionary work as Art Director for the magazine "The Face" in 1980 when it was first published. He has pushed the boundaries of visual communication in all media thorugh his experimental and challenging works. He also designed (with others) the coporate identity for the House of World Cultures in Berlin. He was one of the founding members of Fontworks and there designed a number of notable typefaces. He also co-produced FUSE, which is a project that is a published collection of experimental typefaces and posters which challenge the boundaries between typography and graphic design.

He has published two books and have a combined sale of over 120000 copies and had over 40000 visitors at his exhibition in London before he started touring

David Carson

Born September 8th, 1952 in Corpus Christi, Texas, but moved to New York City four years later.

Carson was a high-school teacher before he was a graphic designer.

First actual contact with graphic design was made in 1980 at the University of Arizona on a two-week graphics course. He attended San Diego St. University as well as Oregon College of Commercial Art. Later on in 1983, Carson was working towards a Bachelor of Arts in Sociology when he went to Switzerland, where he attended a three-week workshop in graphic design as part of his degree.

Carson was also a professional surfer and in 1989 and qualified as the 8th best surfer in the world. His career as a surfer influenced his designs along with his various wolrd travels.

Famous for pushing the boundaries of design he is considered one of the most famous graphic designs on the planet (as described by creative review magazine). Carson is famous because he has influenced graphic design immensely through his use of type, approach and technique, which does not follow “traditional” graphic design standards. Many designers changed their methods and based their style from Carson’s work, which they consider “new” standards. He highly regarded for this but also through his use of combining photography and typographic elements, he manages to communicate both idea and feeling in his designs.

David started his own business called David Carson Inc and has agencies in Del Mar, California and Zurich Switzerland. He lectures all around the world. He is well known for his photography and graphic design pieces but has ranged out into other mediums e.g. directing commercials and videos. He has also written many Books including The end of print, which has been the best selling Graphic design book ever written to date and has appeared in over 180 magazines and newspaper articles. His website is very basic with no side links. This website is focussed primarily to focus on the body of the website and not the headings. Because he moves around a lot he needs to work in a mobile work studio.

David Carson utilises grungy typefaces mixed with imagery that when combined create a complex image. I feel that his work appeals more to the younger generations. His images, from a distance display more of a form than a function at first, it is only when a design is inspected closer that the form and function begin to even out. But after examining several of Carson's works I found one particular work that continued to show up. This particular work was a piece of typographical art which read 'Don't mistake legibility for communication'. This work clearly shows us how Carson feels about his work. He does not believe that the design must be simple and easy to read for the message or idea to be conveyed. He tries to draw people in closer to his works so that they can carefully extract the message themselves.

This idea has both pro's and con's. The pro's for this are that it draws people into the design so they can further examine it and get the message after looking at it for a period of time. The con's would be in the case of people simply walking by and glancing at the image. The design is far too complex for someone simply walking past to extract the idea.